Women want sex Delong

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The purpose of this analysis was to compare and contrast reproductive health RHgender equity attitudes, and intimate partner violence IPV among married very young adolescent VYA girls with married older adolescent girls and young women AGYW in rural Niger given limited literature on the topic. We conducted an exploratory analysis of baseline data from the Reaching Married Adolescents Trial in Dosso region, Niger.

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are stratified by parity. Finally, we use logistic regression to consider associations. VYA should be prioritized in research to confirm and further understand their RH needs. Niger is a mainly rural country of approximately 23 million people [ 1 ], with problems of food scarcity[ 2 ] and lack of economic opportunity[ 3 ].

This evidence is also supported by qualitative data from Niamey, Tahoma, and Zinder, Niger, that suggests husbands may control or advise women about their FP use[ 11 ].

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Nigerien men may be reluctant to allow their wives to use family planning because they want more children than women[ 11 ] or out of concern that the use of family planning would enable their wives to engage in extra-marital sex without the fear of pregnancy while husbands migrate for work Personal communication, Dr. Sani Aliou, October 11, Wives may be at risk of reproductive coercion coerced pregnancy, contraceptive sabotage; RC when their views diverge from those of their husbands[ 12 ].

These same women may be at greater risk of experiencing intimate partner violence IPV given its association with RC[ 13 ]. Such relational power differentials and discordant fertility desires between husband and wife may be especially harmful for the married very young adolescent VYA girl defined as ages 10—14 years[ 14 ] in Niger. This is because of the physical, emotional, and social status of a very young adolescent as compared to an older adolescent defined as ages 15—19[ 15 ]; we will further split this group into ages 15—16, representing middle adolescence, and 17—19, representing late adolescence, for analysis purposes.

Very young adolescent girls are less developed physically than older adolescents[ 16 ], given the former are transitioning out of childhood. They are characterized by their small, growing body frames[ 17 ], and as a result, may be more likely to be injured than older adolescents during sex and childbirth because of their still small sizes. Very young adolescence is also a time normally characterized by puberty onset[ 17 ]. Dependent on age of marriage, however, menarche may not have occurred for VYA girls in Niger Personal communication, Dr.

Sani Aliou, October 11,making them unable to bear children in comparison to most girls in older adolescence. This has the potential to lead to emotional and social harm for the VYA girls in their marriages and communities. The brains of VYA girls are also different developmentally as compared to older adolescents and may influence how VYA respond in situations. For example, grey matter density in the frontal cortex responsible for cognition[ 18 ] decreases from childhood[ 19 ] or around age 11[ 2021 ] across adolescence, with a continued increase of white matter during adolescence that improves the speed at which the brain relays and uses information[ 19 — 21 ].

This means that as girls are aging, their cognitive abilities e. Steinberg et al also found that adolescents aged 13 and younger were less future-focused as compared to those aged 16 and older[ 22 ]. Further, McGivern et al have found that facial emotional processing time, but not accuracy, slows around puberty age 11 for girls in this studyand then returns to a higher speed by age 15[ 23 ]. Additionally, delays in emotional processing could lead to relationship misunderstandings in interacting with partners or their families. When AGYW marry in Niger, they move into the home of their husbands, with great influence on them from their mothers-in-law[ 9 ].

They may also be expected by husbands and family to become pregnant during that first year[ 10 ], and embrace the concept themselves, supported by the notion that their primary gender roles in the community are to be wives and mothers[ 11 ]. Additional evidence in the literature related to stability of early marriages in Niger is limited.

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Analyzed Demographic and Health Survey data from across Niger among year-old women, in the longer term, revealed that VYA girls, in particular, may be especially susceptible to their low social standing, the isolation, and the pressure to reproduce. Their new home lives may be a lonely place for them given the young age at which this separation from their former village lives or schooling, occurs.

Evidence from other low and middle income countries LMIC India and Chinasuggests that very young adolescence is a time when gender attitudes are being shaped and reinforced[ 28 ] by family and peers[ 29 ], whether for the positive or negative.

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In these more isolated home environments, VYA girls may perceive they have little voice and may embrace beliefs about themselves and gender attitudes that slow their uptake of contraceptive and place them at future risk for unintended pregnancies. Global health researchers and development stakeholders have called for increased attention to and research on VYA in the last decade, particularly regarding their sexual and reproductive health SRH [ 30 — 32 ].

In settings such as Niger where marriage of VYA girls is prevalent[ 4 ] and their fertility is high[ 34 ], this call takes on heightened urgency. Some of the critical information required for improving the health and safety of married VYA girls in Niger includes evidence related to their contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy, and experiences and effects of gender inequities e.

Importantly, we also need to understand whether and how these may differ from the experiences of married older AGYW. In this exploratory study, we compare and contrast reproductive health, gender equity attitudes, and experiences of intimate partner violence among a representative sample of married VYA girls aged 13—14 years with those AGYW aged 15—16 years and 17—19 years in the rural Dosso region of Niger.

The RMA trial was carried out in the Doutchi, Loga, and Dosso districts of rural Niger, with 16 villages per district four control, 12 intervention participating in the study. Details of the sampling de and intervention can be found elsewhere. Adolescent girls and young women and their husbands were eligible to participate in the study if an AGYW was a married 13—19 year old fluent in Zarma or Hausa. She could not be sterilized and could not have plans to move over Women want sex Delong subsequent 18 months or travel more than 6 months across the study period.

Baseline data was collected from April—June Female research assistants collected survey data on tablets from AGYW in private settings. Questions focused on issues related to demographics, fertility, knowledge of and self-efficacy to use FP, current use of modern FP, unintended last pregnancy UIPgender role attitudes, lifetime RC, and lifetime IPV, among other topics. We created the accurate knowledge of modern FP and self-efficacy to use FP variables by asking each AGYW a series of questions and then creating a sum or a score.

One point was awarded for each correct answer obtained. AGYW with higher summed scores 14 being the highest were considered to have more accurate knowledge of modern FP. She was awarded one point, with a maximum of five points, for each question she answered in the affirmative. AGYW who were pregnant at the time were excluded. Unintended last pregnancy was constructed from variables asking about whether an AGYW had ever given birth and whether the last birth was mistimed or not wanted. One point was awarded for a gender equitable response, with a score of 3 representing the most gender equitable views.

We also constructed variables for three forms of gender-based violence: lifetime experience of RC, lifetime experience of physical IPV, and lifetime experience of sexual IPV. Lifetime physical IPV was coded as yes if an AGYW answered her husband had ever done one or more of the following to her: pushed, shook, or threw something at her; slapped her; twisted her arm or pulled her hair; hit her with his fist or something that could hurt; kicked, dragged, or beat her up; or choked or burned her.

Finally, lifetime sexual IPV was coded as occurring if the participant reported that her husband had ever either physically forced her to have sex when she did not want to, or physically forced her to perform other sexual acts she did not want to. Finally, parity was coded based on whether an AGYW had ever given birth or not. An AGYW was considered nulliparous if she had never given birth though, she could currently be pregnantwhile an AGYW who had given birth to at least one child was considered parous.

The total of births was captured among the parous. Our analyses were intended to be exploratorywith the intent of generating areas for future research, given the small sample of VYA i. We first described baseline characteristics of the married AGYWs and their husbands, by age group 13—14 years, 15—16 years and 17—19 yearshighlighting factors related to marriage and parity. We then presented the frequency of reproductive health outcomes, gender role attitudes, and partner violence experienced among the married AGYWs by age group.

We reported p-values only. This same information was also presented stratified by parity status. Median values of continuous variables were used to create cut points for frequency presentation. Owing to the small sample size of the year-olds, we did not have adequate statistical power to model these relationships for this age group; however, we chose to present this data for the 15—16 and year-olds given the limited sexual and reproductive health data Women want sex Delong younger vs.

We initially explored models stratified by parity status given its important role related to the various exposures and the outcomes, but we did not have sufficient sample size to generate estimates for many outcomes. Instead, unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios aORs are presented, controlling for parity status in its continuous form.

We did not control for additional confounders given small cell sizes for some exposures. We saw low precision of some estimates owing to these sparse cells. SAS software v9. Local research partners deemed verbal consent and assent, versus written, most appropriate for engaging participation in the study. This information is discussed further, elsewhere[ 35 ]. There were married AGYWs in our analytic sample, with 49 aged 13—14 years, aged 15—16 years, and aged 17—19 years. AGYWs married very young, with the majority of year-olds and year-olds marrying between the ages of 11 and Among year-olds, the adjusted odds of current use of modern FP among those who reported lifetime experience of physical IPV were 2.

The estimate for year-olds was also raised but was imprecise and not statistically ificant see Table 5 for unadjusted estimates and Table 6 for adjusted estimates. Accurate knowledge of modern FP was low among the sample, with a median score of 3 out of A higher proportion of year-old AGYWs scored 3 or higher as compared to year-olds, and year-olds.

Statistical differences were seen when comparing the year-olds to the year-olds and to the year-olds Table 2. Report of UIP was lowest among the year-olds, followed by the year-olds, and then the year-olds, with a statistical difference seen when comparing the year-olds and year-olds. Among year-olds, the adjusted odds of UIP among those who reported having more gender equitable attitudes, a score of 1 or higher of 3, were 2. The estimate for year-olds was similar, though not as precise and not statistically ificant see Table 5 for unadjusted estimates and Table 6 for adjusted estimates.

No statistical differences were seen when comparing the youngest to the older groups.

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Nulliparous girls aged 13—14 reported the highest percent of lifetime sexual IPV among the three age groups. In this exploratory study, we sought to examine reproductive health, gender equity attitudes, and partner violence experiences of married AGYW aged 13—14 years, 15—16 years, and 17—19 years in Dosso Region, Niger, and to assess whether statistical differences existed in these outcomes when comparing the age groups. We saw the lowest percents of current use of modern FP, accurate knowledge about FP, self-efficacy to use FP, and UIP among the year-olds, followed by the year-olds, and then the year-olds.

Marginal or statistically ificant differences were seen in comparing year-olds versus year-olds for all outcomes. Qualitative evidence has demonstrated that after a first birth has occurred, Nigerien women are more likely to consider birth spacing[ 11 ].

Women are said to use various approaches for pregnancy prevention, including herbs; writing passages from the Quran in chalk and then dissolving the chalk in water to drink; charms; and other approaches[ 10 ]. Accurate knowledge of modern FP was also low among our study, supported by evidence from focus groups conducted with urban and rural Nigerien adolescents that also found lower knowledge related to modern FP, broadly[ 9 ].

Self-efficacy to use FP, slightly higher among the year-olds as compared to the year-olds, was additionally driven by those who were parous. Finally, the lower percentage of Women want sex Delong UIP among those aged 13—14 as compared to the older AGYW, was likely related to younger, perhaps, nulliparous VYA wanting to have children and not considering a pregnancy unwanted or mistimed, as compared to older AGYW who already have one or more children. In Cote De Ivoire, More specifically in our data, while we did not see a difference in proportions across the age groups statistically, we saw year-olds reporting the highest percent.

In particular, though a small n, we saw year-old parous adolescent girls reporting a very high percent of lifetime RC, statistically different from what was seen among both groups of parous older AGYW. Reports of lifetime RC among parous year-olds may have been higher than that of older parous AGYW as the fertility intentions between older AGYW and their husbands may be better aligned. Older parous AGYW may already have a of children in comparison to the parous VYA girls given their younger ages, and older parous AGYW may have greater maturity and ability to communicate with their husbands about their desire for the timing of additional children and need for family planning.

Research from Kenya and Malawi highlights the importance of partner communication with linked contraceptive use[ 4041 ]. Qualitative evidence from Maradi, Niger suggests some women are using contraception without the knowledge of their husbands and some hide it[ 10 ]. Older AGYW may have a greater of social connections outside of the immediate family to help them with this. Specifically, nulliparous year-olds reported a higher percent of lifetime sexual IPV as compared to the two older nulliparous groups; a statistical difference was seen between year-olds and year-olds.

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While we could not identify any age-specific evidence on sexual IPV among women in Niger, data from a study of ever-married women aged 18—49 in five regions of Niger suggests that approximately In our data, we posit that the higher percent of sexual IPV seen among year-olds, specifically, may be due to three main reasons. First, the year-olds may have reported sex as forced or unwanted sex if they recently married and were not as familiar with the concept of sex given their young ages in contrast to the older AGYW Personal communication, Dr.

Secondly, VYA girls may have been more likely to report forced or unwanted sex if sex was accompanied by tearing, severe pain, or other physical problems related to their physical immaturity, which may have made them better able to recall the sexual IPV more easily. Third, forced sex or sexual acts may be more common among those girls who are younger and nulliparous because nulliparous VYA girls may just be experiencing menarche[ 17 ].

Women want sex Delong

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Providing Sexual Companionship for Resources: Development, Validation, and Personality Correlates of the Acceptance of Sugar Relationships in Young Women and Men Scale (ASR-YWMS)